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Academic Parity Newsletter September/October 2020

Word of the month: Mobbing in academia

The word “mob” is defined in the Merriam-Webster dictionary as “to crowd around or into noisily, as from curiosity or hostility” [1] In academia, mobbing is used as a backdoor retaliation strategy for bullies to pressure targets to withdraw their complaints and/or to make biased and usually falsified allegations against targets to put them in the corner. A person may be mobbed or bullied in the workplace by a group composed of co-workers or higher-level ranked people “ganging up” on a target in different ways which include physical and mental manipulations to disgrace the target via humiliation, intimidation, spreading rumors, discrediting, and innuendo behaviors. The ultimate goal of this type of mobbing is often to isolate and force the target to leave the workplace. Although mobbing may exist in any workplace, Due to the nature of competition, hierarchical staff ranking system, and complicated relations among staff, educational institutions such as colleges and universities among various organizations exhibit higher instances of mobbing [2] as one of the toughest and most complex types of bullying.

Academic mobbing develops in three distinct stages; a) indirect negative communication among co-workers, other than the target, b) direct negative communication with the aims of blatant and direct confrontation with the target, and c) formation of a poisonous atmosphere among the entire department or the organization via negative communication. The extent of academic mobbing varies from a personal level to the university level and beyond that all of which will exert negative mental and physical health effects on targets. It should be mentioned that the health risks that are imposed as a consequence of academic mobbing are not only limited to the targets but extents also toward their family members.

Knowing some general useful alleviation steps will assist the academics to mitigate the mobbing effects. Some of the steps that can be taken as a remedy against academic mobbing include; i) acquaintance, ii) vigilance, iii) positive and effective communication, and iv) resilience and resistance against mobbing.

News coverage:

Prof. Mahmoudi (Michigan State University) together with the College of Human Medicine at Michigan State University launched a new survey which will help with studying the role of coronavirus pandemic on academic bullying. The link to this survey is provided here:

http://msu.co1.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_8dpnCTJ4nte68Jv

A survivor’s guide to academic bullying came out in Nature Human Behaviour in August [3]. In this paper, the author shares key lessons that targets of academic bullying can employ to protect themselves and fight back.

Yonah Budd held a Straight Talk Live on academic bullying on 17th Oct. 2020. To learn more about Yonah’s thoughts on this, follow his recorder talk in [4].

Leah H. Somerville (a Professor of Psychology at Harvard University) and June Gruber (an Associate Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at the University of Colorado in Boulder) pinpointed three troubles that women face with in science and provided a remedy to tackle them in their recent letter in Science [5].

#NoAcademicBullying is a hashtag to share, discuss, and follow the cases of academic bullying on Twitter. 

Follow us @AcademicParity

References:

[1] Merriam-Webster, Definition of ‘mob’, (Since 1828).

[2] M. Mahmoudi, Academic bullies leave no trace, Bioimpacts, 9 (2019) 129-130.

[3] M. Mahmoudi, A survivor’s guide to academic bullying, Nature Human Behaviour, (2020).

[4] https://www.iheartradio.ca/newstalk-1010/audio/podcasts/straight-talk-live-october-17th-2020-academic-bullying-1.13760232?mode=Article.

[5] https://www.sciencemag.org/careers/2020/10/three-trouble-spots-facing-women-science-and-how-we-can-tackle-them.

 

Academic Parity Newsletter July/August 2020

Words of the month: “Academic bullying affects non-academic staff, as well”

In the discussions around academic bullying often undergraduate and graduate students, junior group leaders, as well as junior and senior professors are in the focus. Nevertheless, non-academic staff, including laboratory technicians, workshop staff, support staff, and administrative staff are reportedly subjected to bullying in academic organizations (e.g. universities and research institutes). Most probably the major trigger in this regard is that the non-academic staff, despite their essential and undeniable role in maintaining the functionality of the organizations, are regarded as “inferior” by their academic colleagues. Compared to the studies focusing on bullying among academic staff, very little to no systematic research is conducted to specifically address the problematic treatments of non-academic professional staff in academic organizations.  

News coverage:

Workplace Bullying is a serious issue among academic surgeons: A recently published Letter in JAMA Surgery indicates a high prevalence of workplace bullying among academic surgeons in the US. The authors indicate power differential as well as the common culture of acceptance and code of silence as the main factors for the occurrence of workplace bullying among surgeons and provide statistical insights about ist prevalence and barriers to its eradication. According to this research, based on the questionnaire filled by a total of 775 respondents (residents and professors), 59 residents (39.9%) and 212 faculty (40.0%) reported being bullied, and 83 residents (58.5%) and 283 faculty (54.3%) witnessed bullying. Fear of retaliation and negative consequences were pinpointed by the authors as the main reasons for the lack of reporting. Reference: doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2020.0263

In another study within medical universities, C Björklund et al. reported “lack of support, low control, inconsistent role demands, poor leadership, poor organizational climate, high sickness absence, and high sickness presence“ as early stage predictors of future bullying in an academic setting. Reference: doi: 10.1080/03075079.2020.1729114

In the article “Address faculty bullying with these strategies“ by L. Hollis, an Associate Professor in the Community College Leadership Program at Morgan State University in Maryland, Prof. Hollis lists strategies and suggestions to collectively address workplace bullying on campus as a less stressful and time-consuming procedure than a public lawsuit. Reference: doi: 10.1002/dap.30710 

And last but not the least, Prof. Mahmoudi and his colleagues at ParityMovement published series of notes regarding legal aspects of academic bullying (The absence of legal remedies following academic bullying. Reference: doi: 10.34172/bi.2020.08), How the conventional academic ranking can cause bullying (The urgent need for modification of scientific ranking indexes to facilitate scientific progress and diminish academic bullying. Reference: doi: 10.15171/bi.2019.30), and How the current unprecedented circumstances may increase the bullying rate in academia (COVID-19 pandemic may fuel academic bullying. Reference: doi: 10.34172/bi.2020.17).

Academic Parity Newsletter May/June 2020

Racial abuse and bullying during Coronavirus outbreak

The outbreak of Coronavirus over the past months has affected communities at different socioeconomic levels, world-wide. Almost all companies and organizations are currently dealing with the negative impacts of the spread of Coronavirus and trying to adopt the new regulations including social distancing, to minimize the risk of further spread of the disease while maintaining their performance at the highest possible level. For many occupations these new measures equal remote working from home, having online meetings, and possibly taking care of children at home. While professors and lecturers in academia try to seize the chance to transfer lectures to online platforms, read and respond to the manuscripts that have been piling up on their desks, write new grant proposals, the less experienced academics and students probably need more support not to fall out of the track of their research activities.

Unfortunately, these unprecedented circumstances have triggered prejudice and discrimination against individuals of certain origins, a phenomenon also known as xenophobia. In March 2020, the New York Times reported a spike in the cases of bullying against Asians at schools in the USA east coast(ref. 1). The San Fransisco State University has found a 50% rise in the number of articles related to anti-Asian discrimination in the period of Febuary 9th and March 7th(ref. 2). In Switzerland, a Taiwanese student from University of Lucerne was mocked by seemingly educated seniors, for being Asian.

Although stigmatization and xenophobia might not be considered extreme, they can easily go too far and turn to active bullying, discrimination, and racism. Many universities have already taken this issue seriously and have provided pathways for reporting the specific cases of inappropriate bullying, or harassing behavior due to Coronavirus. Apart from the apparent discrimination against mainly Asian students, the imposed travel restrictions have created hidden obstacles for the admission of foreign students in the USA or within the European Union(ref. 3). Many students with university admission are denied student Visa and many holding their student Visa are banned from traveling, a situation which limits diversity in academia in the long run.

News coverage:

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill started a Q& A session regarding social distancing and cyber-bullying with one of the world’s leading academic authorities on bullying – Professor Dorothy Espelage. Read more about this in ref. 4.

David M. Perry, a senior academic adviser in the history department at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, and formerly a professor of history at Dominican University, shared his personal experience with respect to the academic title and how that is used as a weapon for bullying in academia. Dr. Perry voiced his concerns regarding the difficult situation academics face if they want to have a future in academia. In his article, Dr. Perry challenged the outmoded hierarchy model of professors versus peons.

Akiko Iwasaki is a Professor at the Department of Immunobiology and Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology at Yale University, shared some suggestions to protect students and international trainees against abusive supervisors and to deal with toxic principal investigators (ref. 5). Prof. Iwasaki identified the root of the problem in the “academic power structure” in her article(ref. 6), published in Nature Medicine, professor Iwasaki named a few items such as Visa extension for overseas students, recommendation letter, authorship in publications as tools often utilized by PIs for taking students and trainees hostage. Not caring at all was also mentioned as a sign of misconduct. Diversification of members of the thesis committee, standardization of procedures for the evaluation of PIs’ mentorship capability, as well as encouraging students and mentees to speak up in the case of mistreatment, were part of professor Iwasaki’s suggestions.

References:

1. https://wgme.com/news/local/spike-in-bullying-reported-at-schools-amid-coronavirus-fears.

2. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/23/us/chinese-coronavirus-racist-attacks.html.

3. https://www.gre.ac.uk/articles/public-relations/coronavirus-faqs.

4. https://uncnews.unc.edu/2020/04/14/qa-social-distancing-and-cyberbullying/.

5. https://www.chronicle.com/article/Title-PolicingOther-Ways/247917.

6. Iwasaki, A., Antidote to toxic principal investigators. Nature Medicine 2020, 1-1.